With the likely extinction of the baiji, or Yangtze River dolphin, the vaquita became the world’s most endangered marine mammal. The baiji’s plight sounded a sobering alarm call for increased vigilance to save the vaquita, a highly endangered small porpoise in the Gulf of California. We've worked to stop the vaquita's swift slide into extinction, with the animal's population at fewer than 100 individuals — and predicted to be extinct by 2018 if it continues to be caught in fishing nets. The Center sought trade sanctions against Mexico this year to prevent the country’s illegal fishery of totoaba, a rare fish, from driving both vaquita and totoaba into oblivion.

In October 2008, in response to pressure from the Center and other international scientific and conservation organizations, the Mexican government announced a conservation plan for the vaquita that essentially boils down to paying fisherman not to fish in the species’ home range. There’s only a very short window to see if this plan actually works.

The vaquita inhabits Mexican waters, yet fish and shrimp caught in the Gulf of California are regularly imported into the United States. We’ve launched an effort to ban swordfish importation from countries, including Mexico, that don’t adequately protect marine mammals. And even though fishing practices remain the most immediate threat to the vaquita, the species also suffers by living in a habitat that is today a shadow of its former self. The Colorado River, once a raging torrent that fed a lush floodplain at the delta, has been reduced to a trickle by dams and water diversions to neighboring southwestern states. We’ve filed several lawsuits and continue to advocate for water flows that reach the delta and keep species like the vaquita afloat.