Wolves on the West Coast
Wolves were once common along the West Coast, from the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state through Oregon to the far reaches of Southern California. As keystone predators wolves play a vital role in regulating prey populations like deer and elk, and in so doing benefit a host of species. By forcing elk to move more, for example, wolves have sometimes been found to increase streamside vegetation and, along with it, beaver and songbird populations.
Decades of extermination programs to appease the livestock industry drove wolves out of West Coast states in the late 1800s and early 1900s. The last wild wolf was documented in California in 1924, when it was shot in Lassen County. The last breeding wolves in Washington were eliminated in the 1930s, and in Oregon the last wolf was killed for a bounty in 1946.
Today the West Coast is a region crucial to wolf recovery. As wolf populations have expanded in the northern Rocky Mountains, the animals have moved west. As these populations reach new areas, they need state and federal protections to ensure they aren’t exterminated again.
In fact, when a wild wolf called OR-7, or “Journey,” reached California in late 2011, ranchers quickly called for a “shield” to block the entrance of other wolves; some even vowed to shoot wolves on sight.
That’s why the Center for Biological Diversity petitioned California to protect wolves under the state Endangered Species Act. In August 2012 the California Department of Fish and Game responded to the petition, recommending that the Fish and Game Commission make the gray wolf a candidate for protection under the state's Act. Then, after scientists confirmed in early June 2014 that OR-7 had pups, the Commission voted to protect wolves under the California Endangered Species Act.
But there’s still a vast amount of work to be done for West Coast wolves. Although wolf recovery efforts in the northern Rocky Mountains and the Great Lakes have met with success, wolves in the lower 48 states still occupy less than 5 percent of their historic habitat. Yet the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has stated it intends to remove federal protections for wolves in the lower 48 states, including the West Coast.
If the United States is going to continue recovering its wolf population — and if it wants to retain authentic wilderness within its borders — then it needs the West Coast, which is one of the best places for wolf recovery with plenty of suitable wolf habitat and a largely supportive human population.
In August 2012 the Center and 23 other conservation organizations sent a letter to President Barack Obama asking for continued Endangered Species Act protection for wolves in the Pacific Northwest. As a founding member of the Pacific Wolf Coalition, the Center is working with conservation groups across the region to ensure that wolves retain needed protections at the state and federal level.
The first reliable reports of wolves returning to Washington came in 2002. By early 2015 Washington had 16 confirmed wolf packs in the eastern and central portions of the state. As of March 2015, prior to pupping season, Washington’s wolf count included five successful breeding pairs and at least 68 individuals.
Scientists have identified several additional wild areas in Washington that wolves could occupy, including the Olympic Peninsula.
Congress stripped wolves in the eastern third of the state of their federal Endangered Species Act protections. All wolves in the state remain protected under the state’s Endangered Species Act. The Washington Fish and Wildlife Commission approved a wolf-management plan in 2011.
The 2013 legislative session saw the introduction of eight anti-wolf bills. Working closely with allies in the state, the Center helped defeat all eight bills and get funds secured in the state budget for wolf conservation, management and research. In early summer of 2014, when the state wildlife commission adopted rules violating the wolf plan regarding when wolves can be killed, we and our allies petitioned the state to make its wolf plan legally enforceable but the Washington Fish and Wildlife Commission denied our petition. In August 2014 the Center and allies helped shut down the state wildlife agency’s efforts to kill members of the Huckleberry pack for livestock losses, after the state failed to undertake sufficient nonlethal deterrence measures to prevent conflicts with livestock in this pack’s territory. At least three wolves were illegally killed by poachers in Washington in 2014, and the Center has offered rewards to assist law enforcement in identifying the perpetrators. New attacks on wolves were introduced in the 2015 legislative session, including bills to prematurely remove state protections for wolves in the eastern part of the state and to reduce wolf recovery goal numbers. The Center will be working with allies to combat all anti-wolf legislation.
Wolves started returning to Oregon in 1999, and the first pack, the Imnaha, was established in 2008. By early 2015 a total of nine packs have been confirmed, with eight in eastern Oregon and one pack in the southwestern part of the state, with a minimum of 77 wolves. In June 2014 it was confirmed that the wolf known as OR-7, who has made California part of his range for the past four years, had found a mate and sired pups in the Oregon portion of the Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest, near the Oregon-California border. In early 2015, OR-7’s pack was officially named the Rogue pack and, since then, the agency confirmed that two new wolves have been spotted traveling in territory nearby.
Congress stripped wolves of their federal Endangered Species Act protection in the eastern third of Oregon in 2011. All wolves in the state currently remain protected under the state’s Endangered Species Act, but the state wildlife agency has indicated it may attempt to remove those protections in 2015. The Oregon Fish and Wildlife Commission approved a wolf-management plan in 2005; the plan undergoes review every five years, with its next review due to occur in 2015.
State wildlife officials in the fall of 2011 ordered the killing of two members of the Imnaha pack, including the alpha male. The Center and allies went to court and secured a temporary stay on the killing. For nearly two years no wolves could be killed for wolf–livestock conflicts, and the state wildlife agency and ranchers relied solely on nonlethal, conflict-prevention measures. During that time, the wolf population nearly doubled and wolf–livestock conflicts declined. As a result of our lawsuit, wolves have stronger protections in Oregon. Due to potential actions by the state that are expected to take place in 2015 — regarding both the state wolf plan and state law protections for wolves — we foresee continued battles ahead to maintain the protections Oregon’s wolves need to fully recover.
For the first time in more than 85 years, a gray wolf was documented in California in December 2011 — and in 2014, biologists confirmed he’d sired pups … in Oregon, in the southern Oregon portion of the Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest that straddles the California-Oregon border.
When he was 2 ½ years old, OR-7 traveled more than 700 miles from the northeastern corner of Oregon and crossed into California’s Siskiyou County. After nearly 15 months exploring seven different Northern California counties, OR-7 traveled back into Oregon in March of 2013, but returned to California several more times that same year as well as in 2014, clearly making California part of his range. Since leaving his Oregon birthpack, the Imnaha pack, he traveled 4,000-plus miles, earning the nickname “Journey.” In February 2012 the Center and allies filed a petition to protect wolves in California under its state Endangered Species Act, and two years later — after an extensive public process and on the very same day that agency officials confirmed that OR-7 and a mate had denned in southern Oregon and given birth to puppies — California granted state protection to gray wolves. The state wildlife agency is currently developing a wolf-management plan and will soon release a draft copy of the plan and hold an official public comment period to receive public input.
The fact that OR-7 has made California part of his range for parts of four consecutive years substantially increases the likelihood he will continue to explore the state with his newly formed family and that his pups could establish packs and territories of their own in California.