PROTECTION STATUS: Threatened
YEAR PLACED ON LIST: 1990
CRITICAL HABITAT: None
RECOVERY PLAN: 1994
RANGE: Formerly widespread on Atlantic beaches from Massachusetts south to Virginia; currently extirpated from Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York Long Island and New Jersey. Two small populations are found on Martha?s Vineyard in Massachusetts, while all other remaining populations are found on Chesapeake Bay.
THREATS: Habitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentation due to shoreline development; off-road vehicles use; pollution and pesticides; sea-level rise
POPULATION TREND: This species is declining.