Surveys by Auburn University’s Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquaculture suggest that only darters in the subgenus Catonotus (exclusive of the barcheek group) produce sounds. Says the Department, "The use of acoustic signals cannot be predicted by spawning mode (other cavity nesters, Boleosma, do not make sounds); bright coloration (other drab species, such as E. parvipinne and E. proliare, don't make sounds); or even phylogeny (barcheeks don't produce sounds)."
Listen to the crown darter "talk."
Crown darter image, graphs, and reecording courtesy of Auburn University's Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquaculture.
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